Periodontal Diseases Treatment

The periodontium is all of the tissues that surround a tooth. Periodontal diseases can start irrespective of the age of a patient. Almost half of all people older than 18 y. o. can develop gum inflammation symptoms. Also, as many as 75 % of individuals older than 35 suffer from various periodontal diseases. It should be underlined that periodontal diseases can have a negative effect on the general health, such as increased risk of atherosclerosis, stroke or heart attack.
Periodontitis is an infection caused by microorganisms or dental plaque that can erode periodontal ligaments and the surrounding bone. In the case or periodontitis, gums separate from a tooth and form a so-called pocket. In time, the pockets can become larger and deeper, collecting plaque and tartar. Later, the process starts affecting deeper tissues, leading to bone resorption, loosened and, finally, lost teeth. Periodontal diseases are mostly caused by the microbial dental plaque, poor nutrition, and insufficient vitamin intake. An important role is played by genetics, systemic diseases, genetic and hormonal disorders. Caught at an early stage, periodontal diseases can be stopped and even fully treated.

The initial stage of the periodontitis is referred to as gingivitis, which can be recognised by red and bleeding gums while tooth brushing. This is a superficial inflammation of gums, which can progress into periodontitis if no regular appropriate oral hygiene is ensured. In the case of bleeding gums, bad odour from the mouth or swelling and sensitive gums, contact your oral hygienist immediately to assess the status of the periodontium.

Surgical treatment is only used in cases of advanced diseases when no conservative methods can be helpful anymore. Then, following a local anaesthetic, lesions of tissues and plaque around teeth are removed, suturing remaining gums around affected teeth. Sometimes, various bone fillers and medications can be used to accelerate tissue regeneration. Unfortunately, surgical treatment usually means extraction of some teeth, which are no longer properly attached to the bone and therefore cannot be used for chewing. Possible periodontal procedures include curettage, flap surgery, gingivectomy, bone augmentation, augmentation of soft tissues, etc. Following a surgical treatment, temporary inconveniences caused by some pain and swelling can persist for two or three days. .

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